Summary: When migrants are situated in bridging (heterogeneous) networks – i.e., using a lingua franca – the interethnic interactions allow for positive engagement with the authorities and locals. The strength of these networks, however, is conditional on the absence of migrant-targeting policies. To test, this book looks at the Chinese in Europe. Evidence includes the largest Chinese survey of its kind; interviews in five countries; text analysis of newspaper articles in Hungary; and participant observation of a police raid in in Romania. The book also looks at Muslim migrants in the region, the Chinese elsewhere, and implications for local attitudes towards the Chinese.
Summary: Language regimes are the product of bargains between groups over whose languages to recognize. In turn, this choice can have economic implications. Using an original dataset of language-in-education policies in Asia (1945-2005) and drawing on fieldwork data from Malaysia and Singapore, this book shows how linguistic power is distributed – e.g., if a lingua franca is recognized – can generate social trust, attract foreign investment, and promote economic growth. The findings suggest governments in even the most heterogeneous countries have institutional tools to standardize their diversity and to avoid the poverty trap. [Amazon]